Oral surgery is a facet of medicine that is used when the problems in the mouth can only be resolved using surgical techniques. Some procedures may involve surgical extractions, in which the tooth is rather difficult to extract (like wisdom teeth, for instance), curettage, removal of irregular growths form the mouth, but curing severe cases of periodontitis is also a surgical procedure. In general, only very advanced cases and very difficult cases require oral surgery. Below, you may find some of the cases in which oral surgery may need to be used to rectify a situation.
Surgical extractions are usually reserved for wisdom teeth, and teeth that are somehow difficult to get to. Sometimes, an x-ray may show that a tooth has irregular tooth roots, or the tooth roots are tangled or very close to the dental nerve. In these cases, some cutting may become necessary.
Sometimes irregular growths can appear in the mouth, like tumours, necrotic soft tissues like gums or the walls of the alveolus, or any excess soft tissues that may grow. Usually, curettage is reserved for parts of the soft tissue that have died as a result of periodontitis or gingivitis. It consists of a scraping away of necrotic tissue with a curette. Curettage can occur on the visible part of the gum, or even in the deeper connective tissues, too, and many times the alveolus (a pocket of soft tissues and sinews that keep teeth in place) may need to be separated from the crest of bone that runs beneath the teeth.
The most common oral surgical procedure is getting a dental implant. This is an artificial tooth root that is drilled into the jawbone in the place of an already missing tooth. A dental crown goes atop the artificial tooth root, and thus the dental implants I the only way to completely replace every part and aspect of a missing tooth
The success of an oral surgical procedure depends as much on the dentist as it does on the patient. Patients must keep pretty strict after care rules, and must follow instructions precisely, or the risk of infection will linger. As oral surgery will leave you with open wounds in the mouth, the risks of infection are fairly high. The aftercare instructions will include allowing the surgical site to heal for a given time (usually a number of days), and avoiding certain foods like dairy products.