The most common use of bone grafting is in the application of dental implants to restore the edentulous area of a missing tooth. Dental implants require bones underneath them for support and proper integration into the mouth. As mentioned earlier bone grafts come in various forms such as autologous (from the same person), Allograft, Xenograft (mainly bovine bone), and Alloplastic materials. Bone grafts can be used prior to implant placement or simultaneously. People who have been edentulous (without teeth) for a prolonged period may not have enough bone left in the necessary locations. In this case, autologous bone can be taken from the chin, from the pilot holes for the implants, or even from the iliac crest of the pelvis and inserted into the mouth underneath the new implant. Alternatively, exogenous bone can be used: xenograft is the most commonly used, because it offers the advantage of exceptional volume stability over time. Allograft offers the best regeneration quality but has lower volume stability. Often a mix of different kinds of bone grafts is used.
In general, bone graft is either used en bloc (such as from the chin or the ascending ramus area of the lower jaw) or particulated, in order to be able to adapt it better to a defect. Depending on where the bone graft is needed, a different dentist may be requested to do the surgery: oral and maxillofacial surgeons, periodontists, dental surgeons and implantologists.
Dental bone grafting is a specialized oral surgical procedure that has been developed to reestablish lost jawbone. This loss can be a result of dental infection of abscess, periodontal disease, trauma, or the natural process of aging. There are various reasons for replacing lost bone tissue and encouraging natural bone growth, and each technique tackles jawbone defects differently. Reasons that bone grafting might be needed include sinus augmentation, socket preservation, ridge augmentation, or regeneration. There is currently some evidence supporting the use of autologous platelet concentrates (cell fragments containing growth factors to promote tissue regeneration) when bone grafting is used to treat gum disease.
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